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India States - Haryana

Map of Indian state Haryana. Mostly Hindi-speaking eastern portion of Punjab became Haryana, while mostly Punjabi-speaking western portion remained as Punjab. Today, Haryana has the vast majority of the ethnic Hindu population. Chandigarh, on the linguistic border, was made a union territory, that serves as capital of both these states. Chandigarh was due to transfer to Punjab alone in 1986, but the transfer was delayed by the Congress party due to pressure from Hindu population. Haryana, with more than 5000 year old history, is the cradle of Vedic and Hindu civilization. It was here 5000 years ago that Lord Krishna preached Gita at the start of the battle of Mahabharata. Before the Mahabharata war, a battle of ten kings took place in the Kurukshetra region in the Saraswati valley. Mahabharata (3102 BC) mentions Haryana as Bahudhhanyaka, 'land of plentiful grains' and Bahudhana, 'land of immense riches'. The word 'Hariana' occurs in a Sanskrit inscription dated 1328 AD kept in Delhi Museum which refers to this region as "The heaven on earth". It was here that the Aryan culture took birth and matured..

Excavations in places like Naurangabad, and Mittathal in Bhiwani, Kunal in Fatehbad, Agroha near Hissar, Rakhigarhi in Jind, Rukhi in Rohtak and Banawali in Sirsa have unearthed evidence of pre-Harappan and Harappan culture. Findings of pottery, sculpture and jewellery in sites at Kurukshetra, Pehowa, Tilpat and Panipat have proved the historicity of the Mahabharat war. These places are mentioned in the Mahabharat as Prithudaka, Tilprastha, Panprastha & Sonprastha. Haryana state came into existence on 1st November, 1966.

Chandigarh, the capital of both Punjab and Haryana, is the only Indian city to have been designed and planned by a single architect Le Corbusier. The city, a model of wide roads and spacious residential colonies, is an excellent base for specialised sightseeing, and for visiting Sukhna Lake, Pinjore Gardens, the Rose Garden and the Rock Garden. The city of Chandigarh lies in the valley surrounded by Shiwalik Hills that hem the great Himalayas. From here one can travel northwards to the hill resorts of Shimla Kulu, Manali, Dharmashala and Dalhousie. Chandigarh is not only the most modern city in the country but has been planned to perfection by the world famous French architect le Corbusier.

A scene from the farmland of Haryana.After originating from Yamunotri Glacier, river Yamuna enters Haryana near Yamuna Nagar. The river meanders through a circuitous route of about 350 kilometers and makes its exit near Hodal to re-enter in Uttar Pradesh. It flows from north to south along the eastern bounds of the state and forms a natural divider between Uttar Pradesh & Haryana State. Haryana contributes 6.50% of the total catchment area of the river Yamuna. Initially six towns had been identified, whose untreated wastewater reaches river Yamuna through drains, canals or local nallahs. These waste water requires proper treatment at source before it is discharged into the water bodies. Western Yamuna canal is an off shoot of river Yamuna & a major source of drinking water supply scheme for villages & towns of Kaithal, Hissar, Bhiwani, Rohtak, Sonepat, Panipat & Jind District of Haryana state & Delhi, the national capital. This makes it all the more imperative to carry out the proper treatment of sewage as envisaged under Yamuna Action Plan to reduce the pollution load to great extent and ensure safe and sufficient drinking water.

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